The case surrounding the events in Estonia (2007) have significant implications for cyber issues. What were the challenges to attribution with the Estonia Case Study? Why is this important to the future of understanding cyber threat situations?

2 pages

APA Format

3 sources

Reading

Clark, David D. and Susan Landau, “Untangling Attribution,” Harvard National Security Journal (2011), pp. 1-30. Click here.

Hare, Forrest. “The Significance of Attribution to Cyberspace Coercion: A Political Perspective.” 4th International Conference on Cyber Conflict (2012), pp. 1-15. Click here.

Healey, Jason, “Beyond Attribution: Seeking National Responsibility for Cyber Attacks,” Atlantic Council Issue Paper, Cyber Statecraft Initiative (2011), pp. 1-8. Click here.

Lewis, James A., “Cyber Attacks Explained,” Center for Strategic and International Studies (2007), pp. 1-2. Click here.

Rid, Thomas and Ben Buchanan. “Attributing Cyber Attacks.” Journal of Strategic Studies 38 (2015), pp. 4-37. Accessed at: https://sipa.columbia.edu/system/files/Cyber_Workshop_Attributing%20cyber%20attacks.pdf.

Traynor, Ian, “Russia Accused of Unleashing Cyberwar to Disable Estonia,” The Guardian (17 May 2007). Accessed at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2007/may/17/topstories3.russia.

Shackleford, Scott J. “State Responsibility for Cyber Attacks: Competing Standards for a Growing Problem.” Conference on Cyber Conflict (2010). Click here.

Waterman, Shaun, “Who Cybersmacked Estonia?” UPI, June 11, 2007. Accessed at: http://www.upi.com/Business_News/Security-Industry/2007/06/11/Analysis-Who-cyber-smacked-Estonia/UPI-26831181580439/.

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